Tag Archives: William Hogarth

Kenwood’s Closing…

13 Mar

I don’t often make it over to the Estorick Collection – a gallery which I still think is one of the most unknown and undervalued in London.  This afternoon I decided to take a break from the computer and drive to Canonbury.  I know the Estorick is shut on a Monday (having nearly been caught out in the past) but, be warned everyone, it is also shut on a Tuesday.  I arrived to find the gates locked.  I was not a happy bunny to say the least.

So the challenge arose to find somewhere to visit on the way home in order not to have a wasted journey.  My choices were Highgate Cemetery (but I didn’t really fancy walking around in the cold), Keat’s House, Freud’s House (also closed on a Tuesday (!)) or Kenwood House (one of my all time favourites).   Kenwood won!

If you haven’t been then this really is a must-visit property.  Known for its amazing summer concerts, which have not been without controversy over the past few years, and for having appeared in many films including Notting Hill, Kenwood, owned by English Heritage, is set in the parkland of Hampstead Heath.

Kenwood House. Image via www.english-heritage.org.uk

The house dates from the 1600s but, on acquisition by Lord Mansfield in 1754, was remodelled into what we see today by Robert Adam, who worked on the stucco frontages, the North Front portico, the library wing and the third storey.  It is acknowledged to be one of England’s greatest stately homes and an obvious identifier of Adam’s style; this was a terribly important commission for Adam due its position and would have propelled him into the awareness of the London aristocracy.  There have always been problems with his famous stucco exterior and Lord Mansfield apparently commented that it would have been cheaper to cover the whole front with marble.  Some of the details that are there today are replicated in fibre glass from Adam’s engraving.

Kenwood House. Own photograph.

Of course, the building has undergone many more changes since Adam’s involvement, including, in 1793, the addition of two wings by George Saunders that flank the entrance portico, but it still preserves the grandeur and elegance that Adam intended.

Kenwood House. Own photograph.

The library, then called the Great Room, is the epitome of Adam’s work, his tour de force and the house’s crowning glory.  It would have appeared even more splendid in the 18th century as the climax of Adam’s suite of rooms.  Remarkably, it remained nearly unaltered until 1922 when some of the furniture was sold at auction.  It’s yet another place where I did some work experience during which I helped to conserve and clean not only some of the paintings but the library.  Cleaning has never been top of my list of favourite things but there was a bit more to it than dusting and vacuuming.

The Great Room at Kenwood.  Image via http://londonbytes.wordpress.com

Kenwood also contains the Iveagh Bequest, the art collection of Edward Cecil Guinness, great grandson of the founder of the Dublin brewery.  He retired early to devote himself to the collection of art and acquired works by Gainsborough, Romney, Reynolds, Turner, Hogarth as well as a self-portrait by Rembrandt and Vermeer’s Guitar Player, exemplifying his late style.  Although the house couldn’t be more English in character it provides a setting for global art, an exemplar collection of the very best of European paintings.

Rembrandt van Rijn, Self Portrait, 1665. Image via www.rembrandtpainting.net

Specialising in the 18th century, it’s hard for me to pick favourites but one of my personal highlights is Hogarth’s Taste in High Life which shows the folly and superficiality of aristocratic taste.  A forerunner to Marriage à la Mode, the humour is typically Hogarthian showing two heavily caricatured connoisseurs in raptures over a mundane cup and saucer.  Another aristocrat examines a black pageboy, a satire on his masters and the embodiment of the Orient and sexual excess.  There is also a gorgeous small Constable of Hampstead Heath with Pond and Bathers from 1821, a view that Constable often painted to aid him with his focus on the sky.

Print of William Hogarth, Taste in High Life, 1746. Image via www.vam.ac.uk

Outside, the landscaped gardens lead down to the beautiful lake and acres upon acres of muddy marshland.  I always end up coming to Kenwood without my dogs despite this being a dog walkers’ paradise, probably because I appreciate the house too much and can spend time with my two slobbery Clumbers any day.

The fake bridge at Kenwood. Own photograph.

You’ll have to hurry to Kenwood as it is scheduled to close at the start of April for a £5.3 million restoration project that will include vital roof repairs, the replacement of the skylights, repointing and sweeping of more than 100 chimneys and the stripping down and repair of the façade.

Fear not!  When I first heard this news I thought what a travesty it was to shut away such a wonderful collection even if repairs are essential but English Heritage has had great foresight and their incredible art collection will tour to three American galleries while the Vermeer will be loaned to the National Gallery.

The grounds, however, will still be open so there’s the opportunity to picnic and sunbathe, admire the contemporary sculpture and watch the restoration taking place but if you don’t manage to visit the house this month you’ll have to wait until late summer of next year.

Kenwood’s Orangerie.  Image via www.omgimgettingmarried.com

Kenwood is a beautiful place to visit and, amazingly English Heritage still open it to the public without charge.  I wonder if this will change post-restoration.  In the meantime, it is truly splendid and somewhere I don’t pop to often enough despite its close proximity to my home.  I’m glad I was able to see it again before it closes and was able to turn my earlier misfortune to my advantage.  Plus, rather surprisingly, I was even in appropriate footwear for a romp through the grounds.

Kenwood House is run by English Heritage, http://www.english-heritage.org.uk/daysout/properties/kenwood-house/.  It will be open until 31st March 2012.

My Love Affair Continues – Zoffany at the Royal Academy

7 Mar

Aged 16, on work experience at Tate Britain, I was lucky enough to hang an 18th century gallery called Portraits and Perspectives.  I’d always had a strong fancy for the period but this marked the start of another of my enduring love affairs with the 18th century.  It was during this placement that I first properly encountered Johan Zoffany through a pair of portraits that we hung flanking the door at the far end of the room.  One of the works included the most gorgeous water-dog, covered in ringlets staring animatedly at the three boys in the picture.

So, I was ecstatic when I heard that the RA were mounting an exhibition of Zoffany’s works and was excited to see if these portraits were included.  Once again, the RA’s Sackler Wing programme shines and this exhibition does not disappoint.

Johan Zoffany, The Tribuna of the Uffizi, 1772-7. Image via www.arthistory.about.com

The first room has been split into lots of smaller galleries.  This does mean that there is quite a tight entrance in gallery one, that I imagine will become jammed, but it provides a good introduction to the artist.  Because of this split the first and last rooms are back-to-back and I imagine people will hurry past the last three works.

Room one of the exhibition. Own photograph.

Born in Frankfurt, Zoffany boldly decided to move in 1760 to England, a country experiencing rapid social change and growth.  (The exhibition is arranged thematically and room three begins to explore his work in England.)  Soon after his arrival, Zoffany met David Garrick, his first major patron, who achieved great success as an actor in the 1760s.  Zoffany was able to encapsulate Garrick’s success on stage, producing numerous works that perfectly portray the atmosphere of the moment.  In most of his theatre portraits, he artificially compresses the performance space to intensify the sense of intimacy with the actors.

One such striking work is William Powell as Posthumus in ‘Cymbeline’; Powell was one of the rising stars of Georgian theatre and, here he is seen at the opening of Act Five, Scene Two where he enters with a bloody handkerchief.  Zoffany’s portraits maintain a striking air of dignity while his subjects seem natural and at ease.  He uses the same style regardless of the class of the sitter and his detail and vivacity is always vibrant as he expresses his unique humour through social commentary.

Johan Zoffany, William Powell as Posthumus in ‘Cymbeline’, c. 1767. Own photograph.

The exhibition progresses to look at Zoffany’s interest in art academies that began when he painted artists attending a life class at the St Martin’s Lane Academy.  In 1770, he started an ambitious behind-the-scenes portrait of the Royal Academicians.  The Portraits of the Academicians of the Royal Academy shows 36 individuals, 34 of whom were RAs; Thomas Gainsborough, George Dance and his brother are absent, possibly due to their discontent with the ideals of the Academy at the time.  It was not yet deemed appropriate for women to be included so female Academicians, Kauffman and Muser, are shown by their portraits.  The work is fundamentally a large conversation piece showing the Academicians setting the model for the life class.  This is not an actual record of practices at the Academy as research reveals that the life model was never set by the Academicians or the Keeper, as shown here.  Instead, it is a record of those who held membership of the Academy, highlighting the aesthetic programme that they supported.  Zoffany himself is seen on the left, closest to the front, with a palette and brushes in hand.  From this position he can survey the whole scene and all who stand before him – perhaps it is even one of the most important positions here.

Johan Zoffany, The Portraits of the Academicians of the Royal Academy, 1771-2. Own photograph.

In 1764, Zoffany was introduced to George III and Queen Charlotte who liked his meticulous painting style.  His earliest Royal portraits are striking conversation pieces showing the domestic aspect of the court.  The portraits show the Royals relaxed; the works are memorable and real.  Zoffany’s career flourished and he was in much demand.

Royal Portraits at the RA. Own photograph.

The same year, Zoffany purchased Stile House near Chiswick, situated near to the Estate of John Stuart, Third Earl of Bute.  Accounts of how they met vary greatly but John Stuart was a significant painter and collector and had commissioned Zoffany the previous year.  These are the works that I mentioned at the start – a gorgeous pair of portraits of the children of the Third Earl of Bute.  It is in this sort of work, his informal domestic or landscape scenes, that we really see how great Zoffany is.  The paintings are the same size and each is dominated by a tree against a low horizon with the figures in a broadly triangular grouping.   The tree, which was common in Zoffany’s landscapes, helps to root the sitters in the space as well as providing symbolic overtones of the family tree.  The works share a touch of playfulness; the painting of the boys emphasises important masculine qualities and pursuits appropriate to their future as leaders or heroes.   The work concentrates on themes of elite masculine privileges.  The image of the girls, however, is more feminine in style showing ideas of responsibility.  The girls are engaged in activities that suggest their nurturing and motherly qualities.  The wall label here is far too low, or maybe these boots are far too high, but it is very rare that I have to bend down to read something.

Johan Zoffany, Three Sons of John, Third Earl of Bute and Three Daughters of John, Third Earl of Bute, 1763-4. Own photograph.

Until this point the wall colours had varied so frequently that parts of the gallery resembled a darkened rainbow but from here on in the lighting improves and the gallery aesthetic seems more coherent.  Don’t get me wrong, this is a stunning exhibition of works by a stunning painter and the exhibition is uplifting.  Zoffany travelled extensively throughout his life and the penultimate room looks at his passage to India and the six years he spent there from Spring 1783; he had an astounding interest in global commerce and was always on the move.

A Passage to India. Own photograph.

This exhibition is long overdue as Tate Britain cancelled their planned Zoffany show in 2010, worried that there wouldn’t be enough public interest.  Zoffany may not have the fame of Reynolds, Gainsborough or Hogarth but he is a fascinating artist whose life deserves the attention it is now receiving.  He may well always be an outsider but maybe it is this that should interest us the most.   The journalist with me yesterday morning was not a Zoffany fan but I was not deterred by his initial despondency and I’m pleased to say that, partly thanks to my infectious enthusiasm, by the end of the exhibition he was a convert.

Zoffany’s works are about human behaviour, covering all aspects of 18th century society.  Not enough people know about Zoffany but through these 60 or so paintings and a selection of drawings and prints it becomes easy to argue his importance to the artistic culture and heritage of the 18th century.  The catalogue is a beautifully designed book providing an in-depth look at his career.

I came out feeling calmer and ready to tackle the day, immersed into Zoffany’s 18th century society.

Johan Zoffany RA: Society Observed is at the Royal Academy from Saturday 10th March until 10th June 2012, www.royalacademy.org.uk.

My Love Affair with Sir John Soane

29 Jul

After my dramas with the sat-nav earlier this week, I thought I’d better stick to my home patch.  Seeing Soane’s glorious architecture in Dulwich, it felt fitting to visit another of his buildings.

When I was 16, on first walking into 13 Lincoln’s Inn Fields, I fell in love.  And, notwithstanding many visits since, I still feel the same way.  Sir John Soane’s Museum is one of London’s gems.

Sir John Soane’s Museum. Image via www.flickr.com/photos/bearpitring.

Sir John Soane, son of a bricklayer, began his architectural career aged only 15 and quickly began to make a name for himself.  Enrolling at the Royal Academy in 1771, and winning a gold medal for his drawing in 1776, it was evident that this boy was destined for extraordinary things.  After a foray around Europe, Soane returned to London and set up his own architecture practice in 1781.  He undertook many prestigious appointments during his career, as well as being named Professor of Architecture at the Royal Academy, and was appointed architect to the Bank of England in which post he remained until his retirement at the age of 80.

Detail in the Museum.  Image via www.flickr.com/photos/lewisbush.

Over a period of years, Soane purchased Numbers 12-14 Lincoln’s Inn Fields.  He demolished and rebuilt the three houses in succession as his home and a setting for his antiquities and art works.  An Act of Parliament, negotiated by Soane himself, appointed a board of Trustees to uphold Soane’s aims and objectives, maintaining the house as a museum as closely as possible to the way Soane had left it.  Recently, the Museum has been working to open more and more areas for public access. Opening up the Soane is a very ambitious restoration project, restoring eight lost Soane interiors including the reinstatement of Soane’s model room (that had previously been used as the museum director’s office).

Building work at Sir John Soane’s Museum. Own photograph. 

The house is filled with Soane’s collections which are so remarkable and diverse that there is something here for everyone – Greek, Roman and Egyptian antiquities, bronzes, gems, medals, jewellery, furniture, clocks, silvers, ceramics, tiles, curiosities, mummified cats, models, paintings, watercolours, drawings (in particular, the most amazing collection of Robert Adam drawings)…  The list is endless.  It is impossible on paper to do the collection justice.  The Soane is a veritable treasure trove of art history and you are guaranteed to notice
something new on each visit.  Even now, when I know every nook and cranny (and my stilettos know every crooked floorboard and creaking stair), the house still amazes and delights me. The building epitomises Soane’s ‘poetry of architecture’ with coloured light, cast by concealed skylights, filling the property.

Skylights in the Museum. Image via www.flickr.com/photos/lewisbush.

The specially designed picture gallery houses Hogarth’s An Election and A Rake’s Progress giving me an opportunity to indulge my love of Hogarth on every visit.  Ingeniously designed moving walls conceal hidden paintings. Nearby, in one of the most densely hung sections of the house, Seti I’s sarcophagus sits in the centre of the Crypt under the Dome.

William Hogarth, The Orgy from A Rake’s Progress, 1733. Image via www.soane.org

Soane’s use of mirrors is one of the special features of the house providing wonderful reflections and enlarging and energising the space. As well as a wonderful collection, the Soane boasts some of the friendliest, most knowledgeable warders in London. They know everything about Soane and inspire you to know more.

Mirrors in the Museum. Image via www.flickr.com/photos/lewisbush.

The old exhibition room at the Soane is unrecognisable now due to building work although, when finished, Soane will boast a new and enlarged gallery space.  The gallery is currently in temporary lodgings on the ground floor (the room where I used to go to process PDQ payments during my time at the Soane).  On show at the moment, Wonders of the Ancient World is a unique collection of twenty plaster reproductions of great buildings and monuments of the past including Rome’s Pantheon and Athen’s Parthenon. The intricacy and accuracy of the models is sensational. They were made by Francois Fouquet who, from 1790-1830, meticulously produced these for architects and collectors in Paris.

The majority of the models remain in pristine condition and this is the first time they have been shown in this way.  (You may spot a couple of damaged works in the exhibition such as the Arch of Hadrian, Athens.  It’s thought these models were damaged in 1940 when a landmine was dropped on Lincoln’s Inn Fields, shattering cases and models.)  Fouquet learned model-making from his father but his works are distinguished by their smaller dimensions and finer details – detail which is incredible.  Father and son left no clues as to how these models were made and their technique is still a mystery.  They must have worked the plaster when wet and then hand-finished their models when dry.  It is probable they also used some stock elements conceived through moulds.

Francois Fouquet model of the Temple of Fortuna Virilis, Rome. Image via www.soane.org.

Soane purchased these 20 models in 1833 and paid the large sum of £100 for the works. In today’s currency that is £10,136.78!  I’d say Soane got good value for his money.

The Soane Fouquet models are a very rare survival and when restoration finishes in 2014, these will be back on permanent display.

The amazing domed area. Image via www.archimage.co.uk.

Although this is a lovely exhibition, I’d implore you to visit the Soane anytime, regardless of what they have on show.  There is no entrance charge so even if you only have ten minutes to spare, pop in to explore a new part of the house and get lost in Soane’s world.

Image via www.flickr.com

Wonders of the Ancient World: Francois Fouquet’s Model Masterpieces is at Sir John Soane’s Museum until 24th September 2011, www.soane.org.

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